Emerging Communication

Series and list of volumes

    Communication in VR


    Towards CyberPsychology

    Say not to say


    Cybertherapy


    Being there


    Ambient Intelligence
Preface
Introduction
Contents
Contributors
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    The hidden structure
    of interaction


    From Communication to
    Presence


    Enacting
    Intersubjectivity


    Advanced Technologies
    in Rehabilitation

IOS Press

Editorial Board


Ambient Intelligence

The evolution of technology, communication and cognition towards the future of human-computer interaction

Edited by:

G. Riva
Istituto Auxologico Italiano 
Milan, Italy

F. Vatalaro
“ Tor Vergata” University of Rome
Rome, Italy

F. Davide
Telecom Italia Learning Services
Rome, Italy

and

M. Alcañiz
Technical University of Valencia
Valencia, Spain


Preface

Ambient Intelligence implies a seamless environment of computing, advanced networking technology and specific interfaces. It is aware of the specific characteristics of human presence and personalities, takes care of needs and is capable of responding intelligently to spoken or gestured indications of desire, and even can engage in intelligent dialogue.
Ambient Intelligence should also be unobtrusive, often invisible: everywhere and yet in our consciousness – nowhere unless we need it. Interaction should be relaxing and enjoyable for the citizen, and not involve a steep learning curve.


Istag, 2001


Honey, is that YOU or am I experiencing virtual reality?

Certainly adults who are reasonably awake can distinguish vision from television, reality from virtual reality and the artificial world of magic & special effects. Twenty-first century cognitive neuroscientists, with the help of fMRI and other so-called “non-intrusive” brain imaging technology, can peep into our brain to find out what neural activities are associated with perceiving and moving into a real or imagined environment, and as I read about Presence Research and the R&D efforts of artificial intelligence to recreate virtual environments I am reminded of the New Yorker cartoon of 15 years ago where the subject cannot tell the difference between a funny-looking loved one or a believable VR clone.

Over centuries the techniques that artists use to fool our eyes and minds into believing what we see have evolved. Some visual illusion and gestalt techniques stay the same, and rhetoric has a long academic tradition. What is certainly true is that today’s avid consumer of video games and 3D graphic software visualization is a far more discerning and demanding consumer of advanced media technology. Be it for security and safety, for work, fun or everyday life, advanced communication applications have to keep up with the rapid pace of technology innovation, and this is only possible through investment in state-of-the-art scientific research and product development.

The metaphor of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) tries to picture a vision of the future where all of us will be surrounded by intelligent” electronic environments, and this ambient has claims to being sensitive and responsive to our needs. A multitude of sensors and actuators are already embedded in very-small or very large information and communication technologies, and it is only a question of time when better use can be gained from these complex (yet still extraordinarily primitive) technology systems. Pleasant or not, for the lonely human, researchers predict that AmI will be densely populated by IT gadgets and systems with potentially powerful NBIC capabilities (nano- bio- information and communication technology).

Ambient Intelligence without invasion of privacy represents a long-term vision for the EU Information Society Technologies Research programme, with the aim of bringing together researchers across multiple disciplines: computer science, social sciences, physics, biology, engineering, design, architecture & philosophy to name a few. A strong multi-disciplinary and collaborative approach is a key requirement for large scale technology innovation and the development of effective applications.

So far most of the books and papers related to AmI, focus their analysis on the technology potential only. An important feature of this volume is the link between the technology - through the concepts of ubiquitous computing and intelligent interface - and the human experience of interacting in the world - through a neuro-psychological vision centered on the concept of “presence”.
Presence, the sense of being there, is the experience of projecting one's mind through media to other places, people and designed environments. Appropriate presence technologies combine new and old media (like books and story-telling) to create an illusion of «non-mediation» - the closest possible approximation to a sense of physical presence, when physical presence there may be none.
The combination of recent discoveries in cognitive neuroscience - that make it possible to acquire a better understanding of the human aspects of presence, and the breakthroughs at the level of the enabling technologies make it increasingly possible to build novel systems based on this understanding.

Presence comprises not only the sense of being there but also the experience and capability of interacting there with real and virtual physical objects. Early presence researchers investigated tele-operation. Today man-machine interfaces have evolved considerably, and the inherent capacity of presence technologies is to support multiple users’ engagement and bi directionality of exchange: the objectives and communication approach are thus different to control theory. Depending on the degree of presence desired, either high or low-fidelity may be optimal. Mixed reality systems deploy both good quality and high-fidelity representation of the simulated worlds; or on the other hand cartoonification and simplicity of symbolic representation when it’s not a rich experience but an instantaneous response that is required.

In this community, researchers are asking basic scientific or philosophical questions about how human beings distinguish object:subject relationships, and how they have a sense of their own body as a measure. The answers to the question of how the eye and brain sees the outside world in a stable and coherent interpretation (mind, representation, volition, engagement) in relation to representing that world outside our heads, or how haptics and multimodality shapes sensory experiences for us and other creatures are not known in advance.
Yet early results of experiments with presence suggest design choices for new computer-enriched environments that give promise of enhanced features (eg extending human capacity to memorize, or imagine, or redefine spacial positioning, navigation, and adapt to novel situations).

Mental and motivational states are part of the study of human presence, which adds controversy to complexity, since the methods or measurement metrics for presence are not established and the validity of predicting effects is scant if reliable or longitudinal data does not exist.
A better understanding of human cognitive, and affective capacities will very likely lead to new applications/products/services, spanning a whole range of potential industries. There are a number of application areas where a good sense of presence is needed, and in the near future xReality plus broadband access and connectivity will be exploited for successful substitution to actually being there yourself. Representative examples could include specific areas (tele-operation, assembly, maintenance and repairing, new working environments, etc.), biomedicine and neurosciences (assistive surgical operations, neurological rehabilitation, human perceptual augmentation), education & training, surveillance, real time interactive gaming and entertainment, archiving, new communication standards, etc).

The AmI applications are the ones that may benefit more from the presence research since more trust tends to be placed in things that can be recognizably influenced. As Anton Andrews suggests:
“As tailored services and solutions become the norm, people will also demand flexibility in the amount of control and personal information that they hand-over in return for the convenience gained” (Empowering Participation, in The Vision Book p 21, forthcoming).

Today, most AR/VR/MR applications are mainly dedicated to simulated visual phenomena. In the future, x-reality applications will appeal to multisensory modalities and simulate more natural phenomena, following a user-centered and user-in-the-loop approach. The user will have full access to various services from the augmented Presence environment. The services will be delivering results in real-time and the environment will seem fully interactive and reactive, enabling those users who are computer-literate to perceive and (inter)act with applications and services to gain new experiences and better results.
Presence research is still in its infancy. The research challenge is to design develop and test systems that match human cognitive and affective capacities and re-create the different experiences of presence and interaction in mixed reality environments. Research should focus on :
- Understanding different forms of presence, encompassing aspects of perception, cognition, interaction, emotions and affect. Techniques for measuring presence need to be developed taking into account insights from physio- neuro- cognitive and social sciences.
- The ethical aspects and the investigation of possible long-term consequences of using presence technologies need to be investigated.
- Designing and developing essential building blocks that capture the salient aspects of presence and interaction based on the understanding of human presence. These blocks should exploit relevant cutting edge software and hardware technologies (e.g. real time display and high fidelity rendering, 3D representation and compression, real-time tracking and capture, light control, haptic interfaces, 3D audio, wearable and sensor technology, biosensors and biosignals, etc.).
- Developing novel systems, able to generate or support different levels and types of presence and interaction in a multitude of situations. The research focus should be on open system architectures for integrating the above building blocks, with open APIs and source authoring tools for programming presence and for designing novel interaction paradigms.

A number of challenging scenarios are envisioned as tests of whether presence technologies can make a real difference, for example:
- Persistent hybrid communities: constructing large-scale virtual/mixed communities that respond in real-time and exhibit effects of memory and behavioral persistence while evolving according to their intrinsic social dynamics.
- Presence for conflict resolution, allowing people to be immersed and experience situations of conflict or co-operation. By fostering communication and mutual understanding between different parties these presence environments should ultimately be empathy-inducing.
- Mobile mixed reality presence environments: moving freely and interacting in real/augmented populated surroundings through natural and/or augmented mediated tools.
- Personalized learning and training environments, stimulating a combination of imaginary and physical actions and emotions through appropriate sets of embedded non-verbal and multisensory cues for skill acquisition and learning.

There will be other scenarios more imaginative and beyond today’s state of the art. The lack of interdisciplinary research has in the past brought well known failures of over-engineered technologies which maximized pixel-throughput but almost ignored how human perception, cognition, co-operation and communication work. Presence research has evolved from the original focus on “being there” and the effort to reproduce reality with ever increasing realism -the “perceptual illusion of non-mediation” - to include the bias and context of subjective experience.

This future of presence technologies depend on the “acceptance” factor and the perceived potential for interaction that they afford.
The chapters in this book bring the concepts of presence and AmI together so that the readers can decide for themselves what is the current status of research in the field, and what these future and emergent technologies can do for them.

Disclaimer: the views expressed are those of the author only and should not be construed to reflect or represent the position of the European Commission.


Loretta Anania, Ph.D.
European Commission,
IST - Future and Emerging Technologies Programme
Bruxelles, Belgium


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Introduction

Making AmI real is no easy task: as it commonly takes place with a new technology, soon after high-flying visions we are demonstrated with the first pieces of hardware for the intelligent environment. However, making a door knob able to compute and communicate does not make it intelligent: the key (and challenge) to really adding wit to the environment lies in the way how the system learns and keeps up to date with the needs of the user by itself. A thinking machine, you might conclude – not quite but close: if you rely on the intelligent environment you expect it to operate correctly every time without tedious training or updates and management. You might be willing to do it once but not constantly even in the case of frequent changes of objects, inhabitants or preferences in the environment. A learning machine, I'll say.

Ahola, 2001


As underlined by the IST Advisory Group (ISTAG) in 2001, the concept of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) provides a wide-ranging vision on how the Information Society will develop. In fact, the vision of AmI can be considered a landmark for giving direction to ITC research over the coming five-ten years.

The emphasis of AmI is on greater user-friendliness, more efficient services support, user-empowerment, and support for human interactions. Focusing on these features, Europe can exploit its technology advantage in areas such as mobile communications, portable devices, systems integration, embedded computing and intelligent systems design. However, the success of this vision will be based on the social dimension of innovation, the ability as well as the willingness of society to use, absorb or adapt to technological opportunities.

The goal of this volume is to assess the technologies and processes that are behind the AmI vision to help the development of state-of-the-art applications. More in detail, this volume aims at supporting researchers and scientists, interested in the understanding and exploiting the potential of AmI.

For the complexity of this topic, we have put a great deal of effort in the definition of the structure of the book and in the sequence of the contributions, so that those in search of a specific reading path will be rewarded. To this end we have divided the book in four main Sections comprising 15 chapters overall:

1. An Introduction to Ambient Intelligence

2. The Architecture Of Ambient Intelligence:
Towards Pervasive Computing And Context Awareness


3. The Interface Of Ambient Intelligence:
Towards Natural User-System Interaction


4. Ambient Intelligence In Practice: Future Perspectives And Applications


Each chapter begins with a brief abstract, helping the readers in identifying the relationships among its sections.


Section I – An Introduction to Ambient Intelligence

In Chapter 1, Alcañiz and Rey discuss the three recent technologies Ubiquitous Computing, Ubiquitous Communication and Intelligent User Interfaces – that are at the core of the AmI vision.
Ubiquitous Computing means integration of microprocessors into everyday objects like furniture, clothing, white goods, toys, even paint. Ubiquitous Communication enables these objects to communicate each other and the user by means of ad-hoc and wireless networking. An Intelligent User Interface enables the inhabitants of the AmI environment to control and interact with the environment in a natural (voice, gestures) and personalised way (preferences, context).

Chapter 2, by Riva, shifts the focus of the analysis from technology to human factors. In particular, chapter 2 outlines a psychological framework for the concept of Ambient Intelligence (AmI), centered on three concepts: action, situation and presence. Using this framework it is provided a psychological definition of AmI, based on the experience of the user: AmI is the effective and transparent support to the activity of the subjects through the use of information and communication technologies.

In Chapter 3 Gaggioli further develops this vision, by presenting a framework to evaluate user’s experience in AmI systems. Main feature of the framework is the role of attention in actively selecting information from the digital environment. Being a limited resource, attention forces the individual to focus on a restricted number of environmental or internal stimuli per time unit. This approach allows the author to outline a practical method to assess optimal user experience in AmI systems.

Chapter 4, can be considered an Appendix to the first three chapters. Prepared by the IST Advisory Group (ISTAG), the chapter describes AmI as an “emerging property” of intelligent interfaces supported by computing and networking technology, and embedded in everyday objects such as furniture, clothes, vehicles, roads and smart materials. The chapter underlines the role of “future scenario building” as a critical process to support the development of effective AmI applications.

Session II - The Architecture Of Ambient Intelligence: Towards Pervasive Computing And Context Awareness

In Chapter 5 by Cortese, Lunghi and Davide describe Physical Service Environments, which combine pervasive computing and context awareness to deliver enhanced, highly usable services to mobile users. At the communications layer, this kind of pervasive computing will require adaptive access technologies, ad-hoc networking and architectures to achieve seamless interoperability among wireless technologies. As far as concerns middleware, innovative architectures for pervasive computing will enable mobile clients, sensors and application servers to interact in the physical service environment. But context-aware service environments also require a well designed, standard architecture for the management of context information.

Chapter 6 by Piva and colleagues addresses three main issues related to supporting an adaptive interaction between the user and the Smart Space: how can we approximate in an AmI system the deep understanding of the context typical of human beings in the user interface of a Smart Space? How can we replicate the richness and flexibility of human-to-human communication? How do we design a flexible architecture which can effectively link the context sensing and multimodal communication functionalities?
The proposed approach is twofold: first they use a neuro-biological model of awareness as a blueprint for the design of a flexible architecture for AmI systems. Then, they exploit a Virtual Character based interface to allow the system to address the user by means of a range of natural communication modalities: voice, eye gaze, facial expressions and gestures.

Kameas, Mavrommati and Markopulos in Chapter 7 present a coherent way to create UbiComp applications. These are based on tangible objects, which carry the computing and networking technology required. The possibility to reuse devices for several purposes - not all accounted for during their design - opens possibilities for emergent uses of ubiquitous devices, whereby the emergence results from actual use and people’s creativity.

Finally, the chapter by Kleiner (Chapter 8) underlines the links between AmI and Artificial Intelligence. Specifically, the chapter discusses how methods from Artificial Intelligence might contribute to make AmI more “natural” improving both the performance and plausibility of its digital characters. Furthermore, it describes state-of-the-art game engines and discuss the challenge but also the opportunity they are offering to Artificial Intelligence research.


Section III - The Interface Of Ambient Intelligence: Towards Natural User-System Interaction

Schmidt in Chapter 9 presents the concept of implicit human computer interaction (iHCI) that takes the users context into account when creating new user interfaces for ambient intelligence. Beyond the model, the chapter provides some examples, and describes some possible application areas.

Chapter 10 by Blefari Melazzi and colleagues presents a European research projects that aims at reducing the complexity of ICT tools. This is obtained by: i) providing automatic customization of user access to services and the network; ii) automatically adapting services to terminal characteristics and user preferences; iii) orchestrating network capabilities.

Chapter 11 by Cantoni focuses on Bodyarchitecture, a research platform for investigating different forms of natural, multimodal human-computer interaction. It involves the research and development of computer vision, speech and gesture recognition systems that connect media and physical spaces to the activity of their users.


Section IV: Ambient Intelligence In Practice:
Future Perspectives And Applications

Within this section, which tries to outline possible future applications of AmI, Bettiol and Campi (Chapter 12) tries to understand the relation between an individual and an ambient intelligent environment. In the chapter, three practical cases are described using an user-centered approach. The considered users are the residents of popular housing projects, the students of a domotica centre of education, and the last generation vehicles maintenance technicians.

Chapter 13 by Ballestreros and Salmelin showcases a challenging application scenario for collaboration in pan-European AMI-like working environments for augmented empowered workers at the centre: the SEEM@work scenario. Design requirements related to virtualization, seamless connectivity and management of complexity will be derived from the analysis of this scenario.

In Chapter 14, Cabrera and Rodriguez Casal describes how AmI technologies could provide an ageing population with new opportunities for sociability. In fact, AmI has the potential to keep these future generations of “digitally literate” elderly people socially linked to networks of relatives, carers and friends. This is illustrated through a plausible scenario referred to here as “sunny retirement”.

In the final chapter (Chapter 15) Morganti and Riva analyze the AmI potential for rehabilitation. In particular, AmI may offer new and more effective environmentally oriented interventions, by adapting the complexity of a tool according to the characteristics of the user, or supporting the use of other assistive devices. To clearly evaluate the potential of AmI for rehabilitation, the chapter also describes a possible scenario of for its use. The focus the analysis will be Anna, a fictitious patient with a particular form of cognitive impairment: topographical amnesia.

The wide array of perspectives described in the four Sections strengthens the importance of AmI as an advanced and intelligent human-computer interface. As this approach continues to develop, it is largely expected a wider comparison with existing methods. In order to achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary approach is essential. Moreover the integration of knowledge coming from different disciplines, such as clinical social and cognitive psychology, neuroscience, ergonomics, multimedia development, or communication engineering, will be crucial to incorporate ongoing insights from these fields into powerful future-generation AmI applications.

Within this effort, the Editors want to thank all the people and institutions that have supported this book and the work described in it. We have benefited from European Union support and in particular from Loretta Anania and Fabrizio Sestini friendship.
Moreover, Riva wants to thank his bosses and colleagues at the Istituto Auxologico Italiano, one of the leading research and health care center in Italy, for believing in the possibility of including AmI in their counseling and rehabilitation activities. In particular, his thanks go to the President of the Institute, Prof. Giovanni Ancarani, to the General Manager, Dr. Mario Colombo, to the Scientific Secretary, Dr. Luca Grappiolo, and to Prof. Enrico Molinari, who shared a significant part of Riva’s research work.

Also thanks to Prof. Carlo Galimberti, Full Professor of Social Psychology at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy, and to Prof. Eugenia Scabini, Dean of the Faculty of Psychology at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy for the continuous support provided during the last decade. A final “thank you” goes to Prof. Luigi Anolli, Full Professor of Cultural Psychology at the State Universiy of Milan Bicocca, Milan, Italy, for his help and his continuing research work in the communication and cultural areas.

In conclusion, we expect that the contents of this book will stimulate more researchers and professionals in finding new solutions both to improve the quality of human-computer interaction and in making better use of the emerging AmI tools.

G. Riva, Ph.D.
Istituto Auxologico Italiano
Milan, Italy

F. Vatalaro, Ph.D.
Tor Vergata University
Rome, Italy

F. Davide, Ph.D.
Telecom Italia Learning Services
Rome, Italy

M. Alcañiz, Ph.D.
Technical University of Valencia
Valencia, Spain


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Contents

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Preface

Loretta Anania
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Introduction
G.Riva, F. Vatalaro, F. Davide, M. Alcañiz
go to introduction


PART 1 - An Introduction to Ambient Intelligence

1. New Technologies for Ambient Intelligence
M. ALCA_IZ and B. REY

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2. The Psychology of Ambient Intelligence:
Activity, Situation and Presence,
G. RIVA

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3. Optimal Experience in Ambient Intelligence,
A. GAGGIOLI

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4. Ambient Intelligence: from vision to reality,
ISTAG

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PART 2 - The Architecture of Ambient Intelligence: Towards Pervasive Computing and Context Awareness

5. Context - Awareness for Physical Service Environments,
G. CORTESE, M. LUNGHI, F. DAVIDE
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6. A Flexible Architecture for Ambient Intelligence Systems supporting, Adaptive Multimodal Interaction with Users
S. PIVA, C. BONAMICO, C. REGAZZONI, F. LAVAGETTO

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7. Computing in Tangibile: Using Artifacts as Components of Ambient Intelligence Environments,
A. KAMEAS, I. MAVROMMATI, P. MARKOPOULOS

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8. Game AI: The Possible Bridge between Ambient and Artificial Intelligence,
A. KLEINER

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PART 3 - The Interface of Ambient Intelligence:
Towards Natural-User System Interaction


9. Interactive Context-Aware Systems Interacting with Ambient Intelligence,
A. SCHMIDT

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10. The Simplicity Project: Managing Complexity in a Diverse ICT World,
N. BLEFARI MELAZZI et al.

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11. Bodyarchitecture: The Evolution of Interface towards Ambient Intelligence,
R. CANTONI

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PART 4 - Ambient Intelligence in Practice:
Future Perspectives and Applications


12. Challenges for Ambient Intelligence:
Empowering the Users,
C. BETTIOL, C. CAMPI

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13. AMI-Endowed Collaboration@work,
I. LASO BALLESTEROS, B. SALMELIN

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14. Sociability versus Individualism in the Ageing Society,
The Role of Ami in the Social Integration of the elderly,
M. CABRERA GIRÁLDEZ, C. RODRÍGUEZ CASAL

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15. AMI in Rehabilitation,
F.MORGANTI, G. RIVA

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Contributors


Mariano ALCAÑIZ
MedIClab, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia,
Valencia, Spain

Claudia BETTIOL
Department of Environment Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata,
Rome, Italy

Nicola BLEFARI MELAZZI
DIE, University of Rome Tor Vergata,
Rome, Italy

Giuseppe BIANCHI
DIE, University of Rome Tor Vergata,
Rome, Italy

Carlo BONAMICO
CNIT - Research Unit at the University of Genova,
Genova, Italy

Marcelino CABRERA GIRÁLDEZ
Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) -
Joint Research Centre – European, Commission

Cinthia CAMPI
University of Rome Tor Vergata,
Rome, Italy

Rejane CANTONI
Computer Science Department,
Catholic University of São Paulo,
São Paulo, Brasil

Gianni CENERI
Radiolabs, Consorzio Università Industria –
Laboratori di Radiocomunicazioni,
Rome, Italy

Giovanni CORTESE
Telecom Italia Learning Services,
Rome, Italy

Nigel DAVIES
Computing Department, Lancaster University,
Lancaster, UK

Fabrizio DAVIDE
Telecom Italia Learning Services,
Rome, Italy

Nikos DELLAS
Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens,
Athens, Greece

Elisabeth FISCHER
Siemens Corporate Technologies,
Munich, Germany


Tapio FRANTTI
Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT),
Oulu, Finlandy


Adrian FRIDAY
Computing Department, Lancaster University,
Lancaster, UK


Andrea GAGGIOLI
Applied technology for Neuro-Psychology,
Istituto Auxologico Italiano,
Milan, Italy


Psychology Lab, Dipartimento di Scienze Precliniche, Faculty of Medicine,
University of Milan, Italy

Michael HELBING
Siemens Mobile,
Munich, Germany


John HAMARD
DoCoMo Communications Laboratories Europe,
Munich, Germany


IST Advisory Group (ISTAG)

Achilles KAMEAS
Research Academic Computer Technology Institute/ Hellenic Open University,
Patra, Greece


Sofia KAPELLAKI
Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens,
Athens, Greece


Katsuya KAWAMURA
DoCoMo Communications Laboratories Europe, GmbH,
Munich, Germany


Wolfgang KELLERER
DoCoMo Communications Laboratories Europe, GmbH,
Munich, Germany


Alexander KLEINER
University of Freiburg,
Freiburg, Germany


Lefteris KOUTSOLOUKAS
Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens,
Athens, Greece

Isidro LASO BALLESTEROS
New working environment Unit, Directorate General Information Society European, Commission

National University of Distance Education,
UNED, Spain

Polytechnical University of Madrid,
CEPADE, Spain

Fabio LAVAGETTO
DIST - University of Genova,
Genova, Italy

Massimiliano LUNGHI
Telecom Italia Learning Services,
Rome, Italy

Panos MARKOPOULOS
Eindhoven University of Technology,
Eindhoven, Holland

Irene MAVROMMATI
Research Academic Computer Technology Institute,
Patra, Greece

Carsten MEYER
Siemens Corporate Technologies,
Munich, Germany

Francesca MORGANTI
Applied technology for Neuro-Psychology,
Istituto Auxologico Italiano,
Milan, Italy

Faculty of Communication Science, University of Lugano,
Lugano, Switzerland

Christoph NIEDERMEIER
Siemens Corporate Technologies,
Munich, Germany


Chie NODA
DoCoMo Communications Laboratories Europe, GmbH,
Munich, Germany

John PAPANIS
Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens,
Athens, Greece

Chiara PETRIOLI
CS Department, Rome University La Sapienza,
Rome, Italy

Stefano PIVA
D.I.B.E. - University of Genova,
Genova, Italy


Carlo REGAZZONI
D.I.B.E. - University of Genova,
Genova, Italy


Beatriz REY
MedIClab, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia,
Valencia, Spain

Giuseppe RIVA
Applied technology for Neuro-Psychology,
Istituto Auxologico Italiano,
Milan, Italy


Centro Studi e Ricerche di Psicologia della Comunicazione,
Università Cattolica,
Milan, Italy

Carlos RODRÍGUEZ CASAL
Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) -
Joint Research Centre – European, Commission

Enrico RUKZIO
Department "Institut für Informatik",
Ludwig Maximilians University,
Munich, Germany

Bror SALMELIN
New working environment Unit,
Directorate General Information Society,
European, Commission


Robert SEIDL
Siemens mobile,
Munich, Germany

Stefano SALSANO
DIE, University of Rome Tor Vergata,
Rome, Italy


Albrecht SCHMIDT
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,
Munich, Germany


Oliver STORZ
Computing Department, Lancaster University,
Lancaster, UK


Josef URBAN
Siemens Mobile,
Munich, Germany


Iakovos S. VENIERIS
Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens,
Athens, Greece


Richard WALKER
Radiolabs, Consorzio Università Industria –
Laboratori di Radiocomunicazioni,
Rome, Italy



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